It is called “cryogenics” the production and study of low temperatures – temperatures inferior to -150°C – and the physical phenomenon that are linked. There are different kind of cryogenics, as:
In the sector of agri-food, cryogenics is used to preserve food. These ones are plunge in liquid nitrogen and instantly freeze. Once heated up, the food is retrieved in the same state as before fast freezing.
The relation between Cryogenics and physics
When one wants to reach a superfluid state or use the superconductivity of a material, the use of cryogenics is interesting. For example, cryogenics systems of the CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) allows to plunge magnets of LHC (Large Hadron Collider) in an environment of extreme cold: -271,3°C, even colder than interplanetary space!
Industrial Cryogenics and Cryotherapy
Cryogenics also allows to change the matter in thin powder for industrial applications, and to create different sorts of snow, cure warts, reduce sore muscles, etc.
Cyroconservation (or cryopreservation)
This technic allows to suspend the activity of cells for a certain time, and to suspend biological activities of an organ or other biological compound. It’s a method used for sperm conservation and for tissues. Some people wish to offer themselves immortality by using cryoconservation for human beings. In this case, “cryonics” is used to refers to this practice. Scientists are still sceptics because organs tend to degrade when they suffer important and violent change of temperatures.